As testoslav explained, in situations like yours, partitioning the disk to have the exact same layout as before will solve the issue since you will end up with the same location as with the original partition and since the embedded backup header is located
at the end of the partition you should be able to mount it using VeraCrypt if you check the mount option "Use backup header embedded in volume".
To be sure, I reproduced your situation in my side:
- I started with a disk containing only one partition and which is encrypted with VeraCrypt.
- Using DISKPART, I perform a CLEAN command on the disk: no more partitions on the disk
- I used Windows Disk Management MMC to create a new partition on this and I choose not to format it (The disk was originally portioned using Windows Disk Management, that's why I choose it in order to have an identical layout).
- I used VeraCrypt to mount the partition without the option "Use backup header embedded in volume": mount failed.
- I then checked the option "Use backup header embedded in volume": mount succeeded!!
If you did this and it fails, this would mean that either the embedded header was erased somehow during your unfortunate manipulations or that you don't have the same partitions layout as before.
So the question is what tool was used to partition the disk originally?
Probably it was not done using Windows Disk Management and that's why you are not able to have the same layout as before. If you don't know, you could try to use a Linux Live CD to recreate a partition maybe you'll have more luck.
At this stage, nothing more can be done.
There was a tool for TrueCrypt called
that tries to locate lost header in situations like yours but the project seems abandoned and no one has done a VeraCrypt adaptation of this tool. If such tool existed, you could have used it to scan your entire disk for the lost header (although
such scan would take several hours if not days).
Personally I don't have time to work on such tool but hopefully someone can do so in the near future.